Political Mashup

Who said What? to Whom? and Why? and When?


Welcome to the Political Mashup Projects. What started as a hallway conversation and a pilot project, grew into a series of projects and collaborations over more than a decade. The Political Mashup Projects has been funded by a stream of projects since 2008 until today. Its approach, its data schema, its tools, and its data have been highly influential and widely used by other researchers and projects.

Political Mashup Resources

PM Tools

The PM projects produced semantically annotated parliamentary proceedings/hansards for eight countries, covering the Netherlands, the UK, Canada, Belgium, the EU, and various nordic countries (Denmark, Sweden, Norway). We also provide rich data about parties and policians.

All data can be explored from within one search interface: http://search.politicalmashup.nl/ and underlying API.

PM Format

All proceedings are encoded and validated in the same XML format, according to a TEI inspired Relax NG schema. We also proposed schemas to store data about parties and politicians. Each proceedings comes with metadata encoded using the Dublin Core standard.

The schemas are available at http://schema.politicalmashup.nl/.

The PM data model is an open, extensible format: PM documents remain valid after adding other annotation layers.

PM Data

All data, schemas and tools are available as open open data and open source (although we appreciate attribution). Bulk download of parliamentary proceedings and associated party and member data is available in various formats from our data archive: http://data.politicalmashup.nl/permanent/

PM Documentation

Various other documentation:


Various internal documentation (use at your own risk):


Political Mashup has been generously supported by many students and volunteers, and funded through: